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Controllers are used to group common functionality in the same
(pluggable) module.

For example, the route:

    get "/users/:id", MyApp.UserController, :show

will invoke the `show/2` action in the `MyApp.UserController`:

    defmodule MyApp.UserController do
      use MyApp.Web, :controller

      plug :action

      def show(conn, %{"id" => id}) do
        user = Repo.get(User, id)
        render conn, "show.html", user: user

An action is just a regular function that receives the connection
and the request parameters as arguments. The connection is a
`Plug.Conn` struct, as specified by the Plug library.

## Connection

A controller by default provides many convenience functions for
manipulating the connection, rendering templates, and more.

Those functions are imported from two modules:

  * `Plug.Conn` - a bunch of low-level functions to work with
    the connection

  * `Phoenix.Controller` - functions provided by Phoenix
    to support rendering, and other Phoenix specific behaviour

## Rendering and layouts

One of the main features provided by controllers is the ability
to do content negotiation and render templates based on
information sent by the client. Read `render/3` to learn more.

It is also important to not confuse `Phoenix.Controller.render/3`
with `Phoenix.View.render/3` in the long term. The former expects
a connection and relies on content negotiation while the latter is
connection-agnostic and typically invoked from your views.

## Plug pipeline

As with routers, controllers also have their own plug pipeline.
However, different from routers, controllers have a single pipeline:

    defmodule MyApp.UserController do
      use MyApp.Web, :controller

      plug :authenticate, usernames: ["jose", "eric", "sonny"]
      plug :action

      def show(conn, params) do
        # authenticated users only

      defp authenticate(conn, options) do
        if get_session(conn, :username) in options[:usernames] do
          conn |> redirect(Router.root_path) |> halt

The `:action` plug must always be invoked and it represents the action
to be dispatched to.

Check `Phoenix.Controller.Pipeline` for more information on `plug/2`
and how to customize the plug pipeline.

## Options

When used, the controller supports the following options:

  * `:namespace` - sets the namespace to properly inflect
    the layout view. By default it uses the base alias
    in your controller name.
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