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Dumps a value to the given type.

Opposite to casting, dumping requires the returned value
to be a valid Ecto type, as it will be sent to the
underlying data store.

    iex> dump(:string, nil)
    {:ok, nil}
    iex> dump(:string, "foo")
    {:ok, "foo"}

    iex> dump(:integer, 1)
    {:ok, 1}
    iex> dump(:integer, "10")
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