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@return [Integer]
The id of the parent taxon. The parent child relationship is exclusively organizational. All statuses and relationships
of a taxon name must be explicitly defined via taxon name relationships or classifications. The parent of a taxon name
can be thought of as  "the place where you'd find this name in a hierarchy if you knew literally *nothing* else about that name."
In practice read each monomial in the name (protonym or combination) from right to left, the parent is the parent of the last monomial read.
There are 3 simple rules for determening the parent of a Protonym or Combination:
  1) the parent must always be at least one rank higher than the target names rank
  2) the parent of a synonym (any sense) is the parent of the synonym's valid name
  3) the parent of a combination is the parent of the highest ranked monomial in the epithet (almost always the parent of the genus)
Please help! Open an issue on GitHub if this assessment is incorrect.